So instead of using air, liquid cooling should be used at the chip level. And the best way to do this, he reckons, is to use micro-technology to apply jets of water to flush away waste heat.
The system working in the labs uses micro-channels 30-50 microns wide with about 50,000 nozzles per chip with 100 microns between nozzles, with parallel manifolds, one for cold water in, the other for waste heat. This system is applied directly to the back of the chip using what's called jet impingement cooling -- the plan is to do away with the packaging in between the cooling system and the silicon. "We want to get as close to the source of heat as possible", says Michel.