AMD Developer Relations boss Richard Huddy revealed DirectX 11's Compute Shader provides significant advantages over what's possible with DirectX 10.1:
Using a Compute Shader path in DirectX 11 could offer up to three times the performance possible with DirectX 10.1, mentions Richard Huddy, AMD Developer Relations, in an interview with Pc Games Hardware. And even in DirectX 10.1 modern Radeon cards with their Fetch4 feature are able surpass pure DirectX 10 devices like the current Geforces.
But at the same time Huddy explains that Compute Shader is uncharted territory for developers and thus it is hard to integrate. Getting the optimum out of it is even harder currently.