Here's a graph that shows the number of transistors in a processor since the 1970s. Moore's Law is named after a forecast of Intel co-founder Gordon Moore about how fast the transistor count of integrated circuits would double. Moore's initial forecast was made in the 1965, when he predicted the number of transistors on a chip would double every year for at least another decade.
In 1975, he updated the forecast to doubling every two years and since that date the chip industry hardly missed a beat. In recent years, the rate of advancement has dropped as technical challenges became harder. Last year, Moore predicted that Moore's law will likely be a thing of the past in the next decade or so.