BleepingComputer tested and confirmed the issue:
BleepingComputer has been able to independently confirm that this is happening on our own computers that have version 4.18.1908.7 (KB4052623) installed. [... W]hen we performed a Full scan, it only scanned 44 files and lasted 9 seconds.Microsoft has already resolve the issue and pushed out Security Intelligence Update for Windows Defender Antivirus - KB2267602 (Version 1.301.1684.0). Apparently, there was a problem in the anti-virus definition. Microsoft says the issue did not affect real-time scanning, only manual scans were affected.