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GELID gets frosty with the Stella Frost RGB fan

2 days ago
A new 120mm white fan from GELID. The company reveals STELLA Frost, a 120mm dual ring ARGB fan with 24 controllable LEDs. This double ball bearing fan is available online for $10.99 (9.99EUR).

This PWM fan spins at 500 to 1600RPM and has a maximim airflow of 70CFM, a noise level of up to 35dBA, and a static pressure of up to 1.3mmH2O. There are eight hub-mounted ARGB LEDs plus another sixteen frame-mounted ARGB LEDs. The fan is compatible with 3-pin 5V ARGB motherboard headers.
The STELLA FROST introduces a perfect mixture of vibrant design and top-notch cooling technologies. It comes with 8 hub-mounted ARGB LEDs and 16 frame-mounted independent ARGB LEDs to illuminate stylish Dual Ring Lighting and create spectacular RGB effects amplified by the highly reflective Icy Assembly and tidy all-white frame. The fan also boasts Double Ball Bearing which adds to improve mechanics and ensures ultra-durable functioning. The new impeller brings an optimized blade profile to deliver enhanced cooling. And the carefully designed PWM IC, a core part of the STELLA FROST, eliminates any clicking noise. Additionally, the intelligent GELID PWM (Pulse Width Module) drives the fan in the extended speed range from 500 RPM to 1600 RPM, it constantly keeps the fan silent but accelerates speed whenever higher airflow is needed. The STELLA FROST also bears dual ARGB cabling with a male-plug adapter integrated to facilitate connection of multiple fans in your system.

The fan is RoHS and WEEE conform and carries a 3 year warranty.

“STELLA FROST is crafted for gamers, modders and RGB enthusiasts. Supercharged with frosty design, spectacular RGB lighting and robust mechanics, it helps fine-tune your gaming rig and make it cool and shiny”, said Gebhard Scherrer, Sales Director of GELID Solutions Ltd.
GELID Stella FROST

Intel Alder Lake continues use of memory gears

2 days ago
INTC logo
The changelog of the latest version of the HWInfo64 utility reveals Intel will continue to use a gear mode for the memory controller of the upcoming Alder Lake processors. Alder Lake is the next big thing from Intel, it's a 10nm architecture that will be used for both the mobile and the desktop market. There are several novelties here, besides being the first mass-market x86 implementation of a hybrid architecture with high-performance and energy-efficient cores, Alder Lake will also introduce DDR5 and PCI Express 5.0 support.

With the launch of Rocket Lake-S, Intel started using gear modes on its memory controller. The idea here is that in Gear 1, the memory controller operates at the same frequency as the system memory, using a 1:1 ratio. This offers the lowest possible memory latency. In Gear 2 on the other hand, the memory controller runs at half the frequency of the memory, resulting in a 2:1 ratio. This allows the memory to achieve a much higher frequency -- at the expense of latency.

Tom's Hardware speculates the memory gears could start playing a much bigger role once DDR5 hits the market. At the moment, it's still too early to speculate about the implications here. But we could see more higher frequencies in situations where this is more important than low latency.
What we don't know yet is how gears will be implemented on Alder Lake. Intel could be upgrading the memory controller on Alder Lake, which would change the capabilities of each gear ratio. Or Intel might be using the same controller found on current Rocket Lake CPUs, we really don't know at this time. -- Tom's Hardware
Alder Lake is scheduled to arrive before the end of this year.

AMD FidelityFX Super Resolution (FSR) ready for a June launch?

2 days ago
AMD  logo
Will we see the launch of AMD FidelityFX Super Resolution (FSR) sooner than expected? A lot of folks assumed FSR was still far from production-ready -- with a launch not expected until late this year, at the earliest.

Coreteks: AMD FSR is coming next month

Now there is a rumor from Coreteks that AMD's FSR has already been distributed to game developers. The YouTube channel, a known source of AMD leaks, claims various developers, including a smaller studio, have received FSR code from AMD. Interestingly, various versions are being distributed to game developers, so it appears AMD has yet to pick a final version of FSR.

While NVIDIA DLSS uses AI-based training, AMD's FSR will allegedly be an algorithmic super sampling technology that upscales with minimal overhead. It's implemented early in the graphics pipeline and requires no training.

Coreteks says AMD's FSR is even compatible with NVIDIA GPUs. Performance is described as "looking good" but there are no concrete numbers versus NVIDIA's DLSS.
AMD FSR is officially part of the FidelityFX toolkit, which means it will be officially supported by AMD GPUs. Yet, Coreteks claims that FSR would be compatible with NVIDIA GPUs, which is quite surprising, to say the least. While it may work in its current state, it does not mean that AMD will allow NVIDIA GPUs to benefit from the technology. After all, the manufacturer has no reason to boost performance on competitor’s GPUs. -- VideoCardz
If Coreteks is correct, we may see the launch of FSR in June.

Intel hints DG2 is right around the corner

2 days ago
INTC  logo
Via a tweet, Intel game developer relations manager Pete Brubaker hints that DG2 is "right around the corner." His tweet links to an open position for a Senior Game Developer Relations Engineer job. Brubaker claims things are about to get exciting with the upcoming launch of the DG2 video cards.

DG2 is the next step in Intel's push to get into the video card market. We still know very little about what Intel hopes to achieve with DG2 -- nor do we know when this part will hit the market. Intel promised a 2021 launch but up until now, an exact launch date hasn't been shared yet. We also don't know whether mobile and desktop cards will launch simultaneously.

In terms of performance, it will be interesting to see what Intel can bring to the table. There are some rumors that indicate the fastest versions of the DG2, with 512 execution units, may be able to match high-end models from AMD and NVIDIA.

But of course, delivering decent hardware is only one part of the puzzle. A decent gaming card needs good drivers too -- and that's no easy feat either. Either way, the DG2 may be one of the more exciting GPU launches of this year. It doesn't look like we'll see something exciting from AMD or NVIDIA in the coming months.

Right around the corner means late this year?

German tech site Igor's Lab has some fresh DG2 board diagrams and specifications of five different SKUs. The site claims production of the first DG2 parts won't start until week 43 of 2021 at the earliest, and this is only for the mobile parts with 128 execution units (EUs). We may see those in time for a pre-Christmas launch. Desktop cards seem unlikely before 2022.

AMD Adrenalin 21.5.1 packs higher performance for Resident Evil Village

2 days ago
AMD  logo
AMD released the Radeon Software Adrenalin 21.5.1 driver. This version promises up to 13 percent performance gains for Resident Evil Village and has optimizations for Metro Exodus PC Enhanced Edition. Other than this, you get a bunch of bug fixes. The driver can be downloaded over here.

The changelog

Support For
  • Resident Evil Village: Up to 13% increase in performance in Resident Evil Village @ 4K MAX settings, with Radeon™ Software Adrenalin 21.5.1 on the 16GB Radeon™ RX 6800XT graphics card, versus the previous software driver edition 21.4.1.RS-362
  • Metro Exodus PC Enhanced Edition™

    Fixed Issues
  • Disco Elysium™ may experience texture flickering on trees with Radeon RX 6000 series graphics products.
  • Performance metrics may incorrectly report temperatures on Ryzen™ 5 1600 series processors.
  • Lower than expected performance may be experienced at 4K resolutions on Radeon RX 6000 series graphics products in some Payday 2™ missions.
  • Moonlight Blade™ may experience an application crash when entering a game with ray tracing enabled.
  • Green corruption may be observed in some video previews on the Radeon Software media pages or thumbnails.
  • Radeon Software hotkeys using the numpad may sometimes fail to correctly save or work after upgrading to a newer Radeon Software version.
  • Radeon Software recording and media files may intermittently fail to detect and tag Rainbow Six Siege™ screenshots, replays, or recordings.
  • Added Radeon Software game detection for some recently added Xbox Game Pass games.
  • Qualcomm bug leaves 31 percent of smartphones vulnerable to eavesdropping

    2 days ago
    IBM  logo
    Check Point Research security researchers discovered a grave vulnerability in a Qualcomm chip that's used by high-end smartphones made by companies like Google, Samsung, LG, Xiaomi, and OnePlus. A heap overflow vulnerability could potentially be exploited by an attacker to install malware inside Qualcomm’s Mobile Station Modem.

    About 31 percent of smartphones are affected

    Given how widespread these chips are, it's estimated that 31 percent of the world's smartphones are vulnerable to this attack. Attackers could gain access to a device's call and SMS history, as well as eavesdrop on a user's conversation. ARS Technica writes Qualcomm has issued a patch but the implementation of these fixes will likely take a lot of time.
    The vulnerability is tracked as CVE-2020-11292. Check Point discovered it by using a process known as fuzzing, which exposed the chip system to unusual inputs in an attempt to find bugs in the firmware. Thursday’s research provides a deep dive into the inner workings of the chip system and the general outline they used to exploit the vulnerability.

    The research is a reminder that phones and other modern-day computing devices are actually a collection of dozens if not hundreds of interconnected computing devices. While successfully infecting individual chips typically requires nation-state-level hacking resources, the feat would allow an attacker to run malware that couldn’t be detected without time and money.
    In the meantime, it's unclear which phones are vulnerable and which ones are not. Many older smartphones are unlikely to get a fix.

    Kingston to ship DDR5 OC memory later this year

    2 days ago
    Kingston is next to announce the completion of DDR5 memory designs for gamers. The company reports it has shipped DDR5 memory module samples to motherboard partners. The Kingston DDR5 is overclockable, has a preset XMP profile, and features programmable power management integrated circuit (PMIC).

    The firm says its modules are expected to hit the market in Q3 2021. Specifications aren't mentioned in the press release, so we don't know whether these modules have more exciting latency specifications than the other DDR5 modules we heard about over the past couple of weeks.
    Kingston Technology Company, Inc., a world leader in memory products and technology solutions, today announced it has sent overclockable DDR5 modules to its motherboard partners to begin qualification on the next-generation memory platform. Kingston engineered its DDR5 modules with a preset XMP profile, but also enabled our motherboard partners to manually adjust the power management integrated circuit (PMIC) beyond the 1.1V DDR5 spec, thus allowing maximum flexibility to overclock. Kingston expects to ship its DDR5 solutions in Q3.

    Memory validation requires cooperation of the entire computing ecosystem, and Kingston has forged close ties with the leading motherboard manufacturers and chipset makers throughout its 33-year history. This step continues the critical process of bringing leading high-performance and overclockable memory solutions to market later this year.

    For over three decades, Kingston has meticulously engineered and has 100% tested every cell on every chip on every module. The methodical testing combined with a lifetime warranty and unmatched customer service has made Kingston the largest third-party memory manufacturer in the world, with over 80% market share. Kingston has also been a longtime member of JEDEC, the governing entity for the microelectronics industry. For over a decade, Kingston has held a seat on the JEDEC board as well, helping set the standards for which all manufacturers follow.
    Kingston DDR5 OC

    IBM researchers make the first 2nm chip

    3 days ago
    IBM  logo
    IBM is hyping up its chip design efforts as the firm has created the world's first chips manufactured using 2nm nanosheet technology. Researchers from Big Blue's Albany facility have made a wafer that contains hundreds of 2nm chips.

    Compared to today's most advanced 7nm chips, the 2nm chips from IBM are projected to achieve 45 percent higher performance at the same power draw, or 75 percent lower energy use at the same frequency. Presumably, IBM is comparing itself to TSMC.

    The practical applications here are somewhat unclear. IBM sold its chip-making business to GlobalFoundries seven years ago, the company can't make chips in large quantities. IBM does have a technology partnership with Intel and Samsung, so perhaps the research will be used there.

    IBM  2nm wafer
    IBM (NYSE: IBM) today unveiled a breakthrough in semiconductor design and process with the development of the world's first chip announced with 2 nanometer (nm) nanosheet technology. Semiconductors play critical roles in everything from computing, to appliances, to communication devices, transportation systems, and critical infrastructure.

    "The IBM innovation reflected in this new 2 nm chip is essential to the entire semiconductor and IT industry."

    Demand for increased chip performance and energy efficiency continues to rise, especially in the era of hybrid cloud, AI, and the Internet of Things. IBM's new 2 nm chip technology helps advance the state-of-the-art in the semiconductor industry, addressing this growing demand. It is projected to achieve 45 percent higher performance, or 75 percent lower energy use, than today's most advanced 7 nm node chips.

    The potential benefits of these advanced 2 nm chips could include:
    • Quadrupling cell phone battery life, only requiring users to charge their devices every four days.
    • Slashing the carbon footprint of data centers, which account for one percent of global energy use. Changing all of their servers to 2 nm-based processors could potentially reduce that number significantly.
    • Drastically speeding up a laptop's functions, ranging from quicker processing in applications, to assisting in language translation more easily, to faster internet access.
    • Contributing to faster object detection and reaction time in autonomous vehicles like self-driving cars.
    "The IBM innovation reflected in this new 2 nm chip is essential to the entire semiconductor and IT industry," said Darío Gil, SVP and Director of IBM Research. "It is the product of IBM's approach of taking on hard tech challenges and a demonstration of how breakthroughs can result from sustained investments and a collaborative R&D ecosystem approach."

    IBM at the forefront of semiconductor innovation
    This latest breakthrough builds on decades of IBM leadership in semiconductor innovation. The company's semiconductor development efforts are based at its research lab located at the Albany Nanotech Complex in Albany, NY, where IBM scientists work in close collaboration with public and private sector partners to push the boundaries of logic scaling and semiconductor capabilities.

    This collaborative approach to innovation makes IBM Research Albany a world-leading ecosystem for semiconductor research and creates a strong innovation pipeline, helping to address manufacturing demands and accelerate the growth of the global chip industry.

    IBM's legacy of semiconductor breakthroughs also includes the first implementation of 7 nm and 5 nm process technologies, single cell DRAM, the Dennard Scaling Laws, chemically amplified photoresists, copper interconnect wiring, Silicon on Insulator technology, multi core microprocessors, High-k gate dielectrics, embedded DRAM, and 3D chip stacking. IBM's first commercialized offering including IBM Research 7 nm advancements will debut later this year in IBM POWER10-based IBM Power Systems.

    50 billion transistors on a fingernail-sized chip
    Increasing the number of transistors per chip can make them smaller, faster, more reliable, and more efficient. The 2 nm design demonstrates the advanced scaling of semiconductors using IBM's nanosheet technology. Its architecture is an industry first. Developed less than four years after IBM announced its milestone 5 nm design, this latest breakthrough will allow the 2 nm chip to fit up to 50 billion transistors on a chip the size of a fingernail.

    More transistors on a chip also means processor designers have more options to infuse core-level innovations to improve capabilities for leading edge workloads like AI and cloud computing, as well as new pathways for hardware-enforced security and encryption. IBM is already implementing other innovative core-level enhancements in the latest generations of IBM hardware, like IBM POWER10 and IBM z15.

    Intel Tiger Lake-H laptop CPU specifications leak

    3 days ago
    INTC  logo
    One week before the official launch, HD-Tecnologia leaks the slides of Intel's Tiger Lake-H processor series. These chips are expected to be introduced on May 11th. Intel introduced the 10nm Tiger Lake-H35 laptop processors earlier this year and now we'll see the release of more powerful versions, with a TDP of 45W.

    This includes models with up to eight cores and sixteen threads. The flagship Core i9-11980HK will offer a 5.0GHz Boost for up to two cores. The new chips have DDR4-3200 support and feature 20 PCIe Gen4 and up to 44 PCIe platform lanes.

    The raw specifications

    VideoCardz created a specifications sheet. The site notes it looks like the Core i5-11600H has been postponed.
    Intel is introducing its new flagship SKU called Core i9-11980HK, which is an unlocked processor for ultra-premium designs. This SKU will boost with two cores up to 5.0 GHz, which is the only SKU in the new lineup to be able to do so. Laptops with HK unlocked series are never cheap and are unlikely to be available in a slim form factor. Officially there are three 8-core and 16-thread parts coming (i9-11980HK, i9-11900H, i7-11800H), however, that is likely not the full list as we have already heard about Core i9-11950H.
    Tiger Lake H specifications list

    Chrome now uses new chip-level defenses from AMD and Intel

    3 days ago
    GOOG  logo
    The Register highlights the inclusion of new code protection technology in version 90 of Google's Chrome browser. This new technique makes it harder for attackers to hijack your PC via Chrome. The feature is exclusively available for Windows users and requires a new processor with Control-flow Enforcement Technology (CET) support. This technology is supported by Intel's Tiger Lake chips and AMD's Zen 3-based processors.

    CET is hardware-level protection that provides a defense against attackers that try to use Return Oriented Programming (ROP) to violate a program's control-flow integrity (CFI). According to Chrome security engineer Alex Gough, the new technology is very promising because it makes it harder to overcome Chrome's multi-process architecture defense.
    CET tries to prevent ROP by implementing a shadow stack, a read-only memory region that maintains a record of the primary stack in order to assure the proper control-flow of any program. If an exploit overwrites the main stack with malicious values to hijack the flow of the program, this should be evident to the processor when it inspects the shadow, and can terminate the program before any damage is done.

    "On supported hardware, call instructions push the return address on both stacks and return instructions compare the values and issues a CPU exception if there is a return address mismatch," explained Jin Lin, program manager for Microsoft Azure and Windows Kernel, in a note in February.
    CET does have some limitations. The article from The Register describes some of them and points out that Chrome's CET implementation could cause issues with incompatible software that loads inself into Chrome.

    PowerColor Radeon RX 6700 XT Hellhound SPECTRAL WHITE is out

    3 days ago
    After teasing this model earlier this week, PowerColor now officially debuts its HELLHOUND AMD Radeon RX 6700 XT SPECTRAL WHITE video card. In terms of performance, this card scores the same as the previously launched black version. The novelty here is that you get an all-white card with a white PCB, a white blackplate with white LEDs, a white I/O plate, white LED-illuminated fans, and a white cooler shroud.

    The Spectral White version of the RX 6700 XT HELLHOUND uses a 2.5-slot triple-fan cooling solution and has 12GB GDDR6 memory clocked at 16Gbps. The GPU has a Game clock of 2424MHz and a Boost of 2581MHz. Pricing and availability is unknown but given the current GPU shortages, it would be a miracle if you can get your hands on this model at a decent price.
    TUL Corporation, a leading and innovative manufacturer of AMD graphics cards since 1997, announces that its newly HELLHOUND AMD Radeon™ RX 6700 XT SPECTRAL WHITE graphics cards it’s now also available in a beautiful all white color, perfect for users looking to build a truly all-white themed PC.



    PowerColor, recently announced and already highly awarded HELLHOUND series, is getting a new all-white themed design, same DNA, same performance…different camouflage!

    We focus on the best gaming experience with no compromises. The HELLHOUND AMD Radeon™ RX 6700 XT SPECTRAL WHITE graphics card is cool and quiet, built to be ultra-reliable, and is sure to provide demanding gamers with super-fast performance and the most advanced visual effects for 1440p gaming, as it has been shown in the latest reviews.

    To achieve the best cooling, the PowerColor HELLHOUND AMD Radeon™ RX 6700 XT graphics cards are armed with a triple fan design (100mm x 90mm x 100mm), a cooler with 5X6? nickel-plated heat-pipes, and a smooth nickel-plated copper base for efficient heat dissipation. The HELLHOUND AMD Radeon™ RX 6700 XT graphics card also leverages an 8+2 phase VRM with DrMOS, high polymer capacitors, and two 8-pin PCI-E connectors to deliver high-performance.

    PowerColor HELLHOUND AMD Radeon™ RX 6700 XT SPECTRAL WHITE Graphics Card features 2560 stream processors with a Boost Clock of up to 2581 MHz and a Game Clock of up to 2424 MHz. With 12GB of GDDR6 high-speed memory clocked at 16 Gbps Effective and 96 MB of Infinity Cache, which dramatically reduces latency and power consumption, delivering higher overall gaming performance than traditional architectural designs.
    RX 6700 XT SPECTRAL WHITE

    Sharkoon Light² 180 - light-weight mouse for 39.99EUR

    3 days ago
    Sharkoon rolls out the Light² 180, this looks a lot like a cheaper version of the HyperX Pulsefire Haste. With a weight of 63g, this perforated gaming mouse is just a couple of grams heavier than the Pulsefire Haste. It features the 12k DPI PixArt 3360 optical sensor and offers RGB LED illumination. If it offers good tracking, this looks like a sweet deal for just 39.99EUR.
    Sharkoon Technologies is an international supplier of high-performance quality PC components and peripherals. With the Light² 180, Sharkoon introduces the newest member of the Light² family. The gaming mouse aims to impress with an extremely low weight and easy handling. It boasts a high-performance PMW3360 sensor with up to 12,000 DPI and a symmetrical design with a honeycomb-structured upper shell.

    Light and Easy to Use
    A particularly pleasant handling is offered by the low weight of the Light² 180 at only 63 grams. The honeycomb structure of the upper shell should support a secure hold in the hand while it also contributes to the light weight of the Light² 180. However, the shell can be exchanged for a closed version, which is supplied with the mouse, in just a few simple steps – allowing the mouse to be adapted to individual needs. With dimensions of 120 x 63.5 x 39 mm, the Light² 180 is not only one of the lightest, but also the most compact representative of the Sharkoon Light² series. Thanks to its symmetrical shape, the Light² 180 should offer comfortable use, regardless of the preferred grip and playing style.

    Precision Equipment
    So that the Light² 180 can be controlled accurately, the mouse is equipped with an optical PixArt PMW3360 sensor. With its maximum resolution of 12,000 DPI, this enables precise maneuvers. DPI settings can be adjusted along seven levels using the downloadable software. The levels can be selected at any time using the DPI switch of the mouse.

    Unrestricted Room for Maneuver
    So that nothing stands in the way of the uncomplicated use of the Light² 180, Sharkoon has not only focused on reducing the weight. Thanks to its three mouse feet made of 100% PTFE, the mouse glides smoothly over any surface. It should be thus possible to execute fast and fluid movements with high precision. The textile-braided cable, which is extremely robust thanks to its sheathing, provides additional flexibility.

    Stylish Illumination
    The Light² 180 sets colorful accents via the light strip at its rear, the mouse wheel, which is also provided with RGB lighting, and the illuminated Sharkoon logo inside the mouse. Thanks to the downloadable software, a wide variety of settings can be made with the lighting, enabling a high degree of customization.

    Quality Switches and More
    The downloadable software also allows the six buttons of the Light² 180 to be freely configured with different functions as well as recorded macros. In addition, Omron switches in the left and right mouse buttons, with a lifespan of over 20 million clicks, ensure the longevity of the mouse.
    Sharkoon Light² 180

    Intel Alder Lake-S engineering sample has 4.6GHz Boost

    4 days ago
    INTC logo
    Towards the end of this year, we can expect the first Alder Lake processors from Intel. This new generation will be a significant change, not only will it be the first desktop processor made on 10nm SuperFin but it will also be the first mass-market x86 product with a hybrid core design. Alder Lake will use high-performance cores in combination with energy-efficient Atom-based cores, similar to what Arm does with its big.LITTLE architecture.

    Alder Lake-S will require a new motherboard as the chips will adopt the new LGA1700 socket. There will be a number of new features too, including DDR5 and PCI Express 5.0 support. Intel was really late with PCI Express 4.0, but they're following up with PCI Express 5.0 very rapidly.

    Intel Core-1800 ES2 spotted with up to 4.6GHz Boost

    German tech site Igor's Lab spotted a datasheet that details the specifications of the Intel "Core-1800" processor. This seems like a temporary name, based on the base clockspeed of this engineering sample. The specifications list reveals it's an Alder Lake-S processor with B0 stepping, it's a second revision engineering sample (ES2).

    The part has a total of 16 cores, which includes 8 high-performance cores and 8 energy-efficient cores. Only the high-performance cores support hyper-threading so you get a total of 24 threads on this chip.

    As this is not a qualification sample (QS) yet, we can expect the final retail parts to have higher clockspeeds. The values listed for this ES2 part are all a lot lower than what we see with Rocket Lake-S. This sample has a relatively low base frequency of 1.8GHz. The datasheet reveals there is a 4.6GHz Boost with two cores, a 4.4GHz Boost with four cores, and a 4.2GHz Boost with six cores. The all-core Boost is listed as 4.0GHz.

    The hybrid architecture makes talking about frequencies a bit more complex. The above-listed values are for the high-performance cores. The datasheet does not reveal the frequency of the Atom cores, but notes a 3.4GHz Boost will be possible with up to half of the Atom cores. The all-core Boost for the Atom cores is 3.0GHz.

    This sample has a Power Limit 1 TDP of 125W but the PL2 value is increased to 228W.

    Via: VideoCardz

    Reuters: TSMC planning five more fabs in Arizona

    4 days ago
    TSMC logo
    Two months ago, I wrote about a rumor that TSMC may be planning to turn its Arizona campus into a giant factory site with a total of six production facilities. Now this rumor gets more concrete as Reuters heard from three confidential sources that TSMC indeed plans to upgrade its Arizona campus, which is still under construction, to six production units.

    Six plants over next three years?

    TSMC announced its first Arizona plant one year ago. The initial Phase 1 factory is a $12 billion investment to set up a 300mm wafer fab in Phoenix. This facility is expected to start mass production in 2024. Production will start using the 5nm process and the plant has a planned wafer output of 20,000 wafers.

    It's a relatively modest start in Arizona but it appears TSMC's plans are a lot bigger. Internally, the Taiwanese foundry is reportedly considering making its Arizona operations a giant plant with six fabs. One of Reuters' sources claimed TSMC plans to start building all six fabs over the next three years.

    According to TSMC, the foundry decides expansion based on operational efficiency, cost economics, and customer demand. The foundry recently announced it would invest a massive $100 billion over the next three years to increase production capacity.

    TSMC is the world leader in the semiconductor foundry market. It's the largest player and it offers the most advanced production capacity. At the moment, there is a big shortage of foundry capacity, especially at cutting-edge nodes.

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